Reptiles and Amphibians of San Martin

Author: Dipl. Biol.Rainer Schulte, INIBICO, Tarapoto.
Last Update: 7.
May 1999
(If referenced please credit author.)

Territory of San Martín: 53.063 km²


LITREC = Literature record not confirmed by the authors personal observation/collection. If confirmed, this is especially mentioned.
San Martin shares all known neotropial biota from Lowland Rainforests up to High Andean-bunchgrass or Paramo conditions over 3500-4200 m, but with the addition of an Tropical Dry Forest belt in the rain shadow of the oriental cordilleras.
LF= Lowland Forest, PMF= Premontane Forest, MF= Montane forest, CLF= Cloud Forest, TDF= Tropical Dry Forest.

VCR= Venceremos, C.Y.= Road Tarapoto - Yurimaguas

Ecolevels of East Andean & Amazonian Habitats, if working with Herpetofauna Elements: Level 1: 0 - 600 m above Sea Level = (Tropical Lowland Forest, including Tropical Dry Forest).
Level 2: 600- 1200 m above Sea Level = (Highland Forest- Selva Alta, incl. Tropical Premontane Forest).
Level 3: 1200- 2200 m above Sea Level = (Tropical Montane Forest)
Level 4: 2200- 3200 m above Sea Level = (Cold Tropical Montane Forest, incl. East Andean Permanent-Cloud Forest).
Level 5: 3200- 4500 m above Sea Level = (Tree Limit- Puna & Paramo formation).
Level 6: 4500- 5500 m or more above Sea Level (High Andean Ecosystem).


The present listing is a combination of own field work (CRS- collection at Tarapoto, Peru) and the integration of literature records (LITREC) from other authors.

Bothrops bilineatus smaragdinus is named in other papers Bothrechis bilineatus smaragdinus - the author follows the version of Carillo & Icochea 1995. Their listings should be updated geographically (San Martin) with the data published herein.

The Yacu-jergon, Xenodon severus, is possibly extremely toxic: there are hospital records of bitings contributed to this very agressive and somewhat common snake which showed severe effects - campesinos mention that this snake kills persons. Typical for our San Martin Xenodon samples are the DIVIDED ANALIA (versus Duellman 1978). Another toxic colubrid snake present is a brown Erythrolampus (?) with two yellow to cream dorsolateral stripes (personal experience after a bite with numbness of bitten area on hand). This snake is a frog feeder and lives along streams.

General Faunal contents of the Region San Martín is 1/2 of the known Peruvian Reptile Fauna and 1/3 of the Peruvian Amphibian Fauna, which are absolutely outstanding values for our Region.

If there are changes, criticisms or updates necessary, please contact us by Email:

Dipl. Biol. Rainer Schulte

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